What is OPS in Baseball? A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding On-Base Plus Slugging

In the world of baseball statistics, OPS stands as one of the most vital metrics for evaluating a player’s overall offensive performance. It is an abbreviation for On-Base Plus Slugging, and it provides a comprehensive view of a player’s ability to reach base and hit for power. OPS has become increasingly popular among analysts, fans, and coaches alike, shaping the way we perceive and appreciate offensive prowess in baseball. In this article, we will delve into the nuances of OPS, how it is calculated, its significance, and how it has transformed the way we analyze the game.

Understanding the Components of OPS

1.1 On-Base Percentage (OBP)

The first component of OPS is the On-Base Percentage or OBP. It measures a player’s ability to reach base safely and is calculated by dividing the total number of times a player reaches base (hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches) by their total plate appearances.

1.2 Slugging Percentage (SLG)

The second component is the Slugging Percentage, or SLG, which reflects a player’s power-hitting proficiency. It is calculated by dividing the total number of bases a player accumulates from hits by their total number of at-bats.

Calculating OPS

To determine a player’s OPS, the On-Base Percentage and Slugging Percentage are added together. The formula for OPS is as follows:


The Significance of OPS

OPS provides a consolidated measure of a player’s offensive contributions, combining their ability to get on base and hit for extra bases. By blending these two essential aspects, OPS presents a more holistic representation of a player’s offensive performance compared to traditional stats like batting average.

OPS+ – The Adjusted OPS

OPS+ takes the concept of OPS one step further. It adjusts a player’s OPS to account for ballpark factors and league-wide offensive levels. An OPS+ of 100 is considered league average, with every point above or below indicating one percentage point above or below average, respectively.

Historical Significance of OPS

Early Adoption of OPS

Although OPS was not a widely known statistic in baseball’s early years, it was inadvertently used by statisticians and coaches who recognized the value of combining on-base skills and power-hitting.

Modern Acceptance and Mainstream Usage

With the advent of advanced analytics and sabermetrics, OPS gained popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Today, it is a fundamental part of baseball analysis, appearing in broadcasts, player evaluations, and conversations among fans.

Why OPS Matters

Simplified Player Comparison

OPS allows us to compare players from different eras more effectively. By considering both on-base ability and slugging, OPS enables us to see beyond era-specific variations and evaluate players with a broader perspective.

Talent Identification and Team Building

In contemporary baseball, OPS is an essential tool for talent identification and team building. Coaches and scouts can identify players with high OPS values, indicating their potential to be offensive powerhouses.

Limitations of OPS

While OPS is a valuable metric, it is not without limitations. It does not consider base running, defense, or situational hitting, which can be critical in evaluating a player’s overall value to a team.


OPS has revolutionized the way we assess offensive performance in baseball. Its ability to synthesize multiple offensive skills into one easily digestible metric makes it an indispensable tool for player evaluation and comparison. As baseball continues to embrace advanced statistics, OPS will remain a pillar in the analysis of the game.


  1. What is a good OPS in baseball?
    • Generally, an OPS above .800 is considered above average, while an OPS above 1.000 is considered exceptional.
  2. Does OPS account for a player’s defensive abilities?
    • No, OPS solely focuses on a player’s offensive performance and does not consider defensive contributions.
  3. Is a high OBP or SLG more critical for a player’s OPS?
    • Both are crucial. A player needs a balance of on-base skills and power-hitting to achieve a high OPS.
  4. How often is OPS calculated during the baseball season?
    • OPS is calculated regularly and is updated after each game a player participates in.
  5. Are there any players with a career OPS over 1.000?
    • Yes, some all-time greats, such as Babe Ruth, Ted Williams, and Barry Bonds, boast career OPS values above 1.000.

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